The last years of Charles' reign were marked by the outbreak of the English Civil War, which saw Britain being torn apart as the King’s Cavalier supporters took on the might of Oliver Cromwell and his Parliamentarian New Model Army. The Stuarts were the first kings of the United Kingdom. William III was also William II, King of Scotland. Before the Stuart period, England was in the rule of Queen Elizabeth. The House of Stewart (or ‘Stuart’ as it later became) was established by Robert II of Scotland during the late 14th century and the Stuart rule spanned from 1371 to 1714. Back in England, he was replaced on the throne not by his Roman Catholic son, James Francis Edward, but by William of Orange and his wife, the exiled King’s own protestant daughter Mary, as joint rulers. The Stuart dynasty reigned in England and Scotland from 1603 to 1714, a period which saw a flourishing Court culture but also much upheaval and instability, of plague, fire and war. This is the sixth volume in … His reign was also marked by both the last outbreak of bubonic plague in England and the Great Fire of London. On 1 January 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merged, which resulted in the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. This list of royal houses differs from the views of many historians. The subsequent belief that James - not William or Mary - was the legitimate ruler became known as Jacobitism, taken from the Latin for James. The Royal House of Stuart was the ruling royal dynasty of England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland for one hundred and eleven years, by way of seven monarchs from 1603 until 1714. Monarchs of England Timeline. The prospect of end of the Stuart line, with the death of Queen Anne's only surviving child in 1700, led to the drawing up of the Act of Settlement in 1701, which provided that only Protestants could hold the throne. Stuarts (1603 1714) 1. Succeeded his grandfather Malcolm II as King of the Scots. However, although James was a successful monarch in Scotland, the same was not true in England. The Stuarts begin in 1371 with the reign of Robert II, at a time when Scots kings were more like terrible tribal warlords than monarchs with kingly dignity. After the death of Elizabeth I of England, the last monarch from the House of Tudor, the House of Stuart took over the thrones of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland, providing the head of all three states between 1603 and 1714, under a personal union. 1154 - 1216 The Angevins (The first Plantagenet kings) 1216 - 1399 Plantagenets. The upshot of this Jacobite rebellion led to the passing of the Act of Settlement, uniting English and Scottish parliament and further cementing the rule that only Protestants could hold the throne. Henry VII (1485 – 1509) Having defeated Richard III at Bosworth, Henry Tudor went on to found the … Stuart house monarchs in order (including others) James I, Charles I, Oliver Cromwell, King Charles II, James II, William and Mary, Anne. As a result, he was seen by many as an arrogant foreigner. • They quarreled with Parliament and this resulted in civil war • The only king of England ever to be tried and executed was a Stuart. Prior to his father’s execution, Charles had fought against the Parliamentarians until he fled into exile in Europe. House of Stewart (Stuart) Robert II (1371–1390) Robert III (1390–1406) James I (1406–1437) James II (1437–1460) James III (1460–1488) James IV (1488–1513) James V (1513–1542) Mary I (1542–1567) (executed 1587) James VI (1567–1625), Union of the Crowns with Kingdom of England from (1603) Charles I (1625–1649) Monarch: ... STUARTS (restored) Charles II: 1660-1685. Their son Robert was heir to the House of Bruce, the Lordship of Cunningham and the Bruce lands of Bourtreehill; he eventually inherited the Scottish throne when his uncle David II died childless in 1371. The period is named after the surnames of the monarchs who reigned. Witchcraft was a serious matter, but science and reason began to take hold. As King, he allowed much of the cultural flourishing of Elizabethan England to continue while science, literature and art grew greatly during his reign. Learn. Write. Charles II was succeeded in 1685 by his Roman Catholic brother James II (died 1701), who so alienated the sympathies of his subjects that in 1688 William, prince of Orange, was invited to come “to the rescue of the laws and religion of England.” When James II's daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange accepted the joint crown they were read the Declaration of Rights, which designated the succession was to go to their children, then those of her sister Anne. It established itself in practice as the ultimate political authority in the country. James was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley, grandson of Henry VIII ‘s sister, Margaret. In order to create a playlist on Sporcle, you need to verify the email address you used during registration. After King Charles I was executed, there was no monarch. Find out more about the 41 different Kings and Queens since William I 'The Conqueror' became King in 1066. As both Anne and her sister Mary had failed to produce a child who could live into adulthood, there was a succession crisis, in which the Roman Catholic James Francis Edward, son of James II, attempted to claim the crown. The years between 1642 and 1651 were a period of time which saw several bloody battles known as the English Civil Wars. George I: 1714-1727: 13: House of Hanover. 1461 - 1485 The House of York. However, despite the longevity of the Stuart reign and Scotland’s prosperity and modernisation during the beginning of the Renaissance, the monarchs … The descendants of Princess Henrietta-Anne, youngest daughter of King Charles I, who would have been de jure monarchs of the House of Stuart after the death of King Henry IX and I in 1807 are shown below. He forbade any interpretation of church doctrine different to his own and made Sunday Church-going compulsory. As a man, however he was not seen as a failure. It was an age of intense religious debate and radical politics. although her health was going well, the series of deaths in her friends made her walk to the road of depression.In 1603, February Catherine Carey, the niece of her cousin and her close friend Lady Knollys met their death, Elizabeth also started falling sick. Actions such as the levying of taxes without Parliament's consent only added to this fear, as did his attempts to impose major religious changes on the Church of England, which many of his subjects felt brought their country's faith too close to Catholicism. The Royal Stuarts by Allan Massie. Kelsey_Hudson. The rule of England was passed over to Mary’s sister Anne. Stuarts Restoration. BEFORE STUART PERIOD . The Stuart Monarchy: England. When James VI of Scotland became James I of England in 1603, he unified the crowns of Scotland, Ireland, and England. When she finally died of gout without an heir, she was succeeded by a distant cousin, George I, from the House of Hanover. William III: 1689-1702. House of York Stuarts. The Tudor family originally came from Wales, the Stuarts from Scotland. The Tudor and Stuart period marks the beginning of modern England and spans some 200 years. William and Mary of Orange ascended the throne as joint monarchs and defenders of Protestantism, followed by Queen Anne, the second of James II's daughters. Slide master • The Stuart monarchs, from James I onwards, were less successful than the Tudors. Due to his religious disposition some of his subjects distrusted his policies, leading a group of Protestant dissidents led by his son-in-law William of Orange to depose him after only three years in what is known as the ‘Glorious Revolution’. Gravity. After the act of Union in 1707 the king or queen is more correctly called the monarch of Great Britain. PLAY. Anne’s reign was also marked by England’s attempts to further its influence in Europe by declaring war on France, which led to the War of Spanish Succession, lasting twelve years and dominating both foreign and domestic policy. The 'something in between' was the Commonwealth. Queen Anne was the daughter of James II of England and Anne Hyde, his first wife. The Stuart Succession after 1807. History Quiz / Quick Pick - Stuart Monarchs Random History or Quick Pick Quiz Can you pick which of these Kings and Queens of England were members of the House of Stuart? Click here for our comprehensive article on the Tudors. BY DAVID ROSS, EDITOR. William III was William II, Prince of Orange’s son. The proclamation of James’ kingship broke precedent because it was issued not by Elizabeth, but by an appointed Council of Accession. 1650: 1702: 52: Westminster Abbey, England. Provides an introduction to the monarchs and their times. During this time Anne sought council from many political advisors, which ultimately led to the increase in the influence of ministers and a decrease in the influence of the crown. After she died of smallpox, William’s ties in Europe led to England’s involvement in war overseas and when William died he was not missed. 1901 -1910 and 1910 - Today Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and The Windsors It declared that no Catholic could become sovereign and that no monarch could keep a standing army during peacetime except with the consent of Parliament. However, when he died, he had unwittingly sown the seeds for the English Civil War. 28 Apr 1442 – 9 Apr 1483 16 Rouen, France. Oliver Cromwell was a Puritan and during the Interregnum, he imposed a very strict form of Christianity upon the country. Along with Alfred the Great, James is considered by many to have been one of the most intellectual and learned individuals ever to sit on the English or Scottish thrones. A Monarchy Transformed: Britain 1603-1714 by Mark Kishlansky. Anne: 1702-1707: 5: Stuarts Restoration. After the execution (1649) of James’s son Charles I, the Stuarts were excluded from the throne until the restoration of Charles II in 1660. The English Parliament under the Stuart monarchs was at the centre of politics as never before. 1603 - 1649 and 1660 - 1714 The Stuarts. 1485 -1603 The Tudors. However, rule under Cromwell became increasingly akin to a dictatorship and when he died, his son Richard proved to be unfit to take his father’s place. by Ben Johnson. Flashcards. There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. King James’ son famously took his father’s struggle with Parliament to unprecedented levels with his fierce belief in the Divine Right of Kings, causing many in England to fear that he was attempting to gain absolute power. The Stuarts were the first kings of the United Kingdom. Spell. 1406: James I. Terms in this set (29) James I. King James VI of Scotland became also King James I of England, thus combining the two thrones for the first time. 1066 - 1154 The Normans. The Tudor and Stuart Monarchs and some of the main events of their reigns. This being the case, plans were made for a restoration of the Monarchy and in 1660, Charles II returned to England, triumphant. Royal House of Stuart Family Tree from King James I (1603 - 1625) to Queen Anne (1702 - 1714). Catholics were not allowed to celebrate Mass and he refuse… In the 17th century, a … The Stuart legacy was to linger on in the form of claimants to the Crown for another century. The period of the Stuarts began when James VI of Scotland became King James I of England, Ireland and Wales after Elizabeth I died. Mary II: 1689-1694. The Stuart dynasty reigned in England and Scotland from 1603 to 1714, a period which saw a flourishing Court culture but also much upheaval and instability, of plague, fire and war. 1714 -1901 The House of Hanoverians. Invaded northern England and besieged Durham in 1039. The next in line according to the provisions of this act was George Elector of Hanover, yet Stuart Princes remained in the wings. Unlike his father, Charles II was skilled at managing Parliament and the Whig and Tory political parties first developed during this time. He was unable to deal with a hostile Parliament, while his mismanagement of the kingdom's funds and extreme Protestant background led to many enemies; it was James who was the target of Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot to blow up Parliament in 1605. Created by. Anne: 1702-1714. King James VI of Scotland became also King James I of England, thus combining the two thrones for the first time. Anne was the last monarch of the House of Stuart. James made one attempt to get back the throne, raising an army in Ireland but this never amounted to anything and he spent the last days of his life in France. The House of Stuart. James’s eldest son, Henry … After 26 of Ireland's 32 counties left the union on 6 December 1922, in order … James I, king of Scotland (as James VI) from 1567 to 1625 and first Stuart king of England from 1603 to 1625, who styled himself “king of Great Britain.” James was a strong advocate of royal… The war ended with Charles being publicly executed for high treason, the monarchy being overthrown, and a commonwealth established. The Stuart Monarchy, from King James I to Queen Anne, formed Britain into what it is today. 1665: 1714: 49: Westminster Abbey, England. STUDY. The sixth High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart (1293–1326), married Marjorie, daughter of Robert the Bruce, and also played an important part in the Battle of Bannockburn gaining further favour. HOUSE OF HANOVER. ‘The Merry Monarch' as he was later known, Charles II is famous for his decadent lifestyle and his many mistresses. Fine Art Images / Heritage Images / Getty Images. 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